Fighting Type 2 Diabetes With Metformin

Metformin (brand names: Glucophage, Fortamet, Riomet) is an oral anti-diabetic medicine meant specifically for Type 2 Diabetics. That is, for diabetics who do not need to take a daily injection of insulin. Metformin helps reduce plasma glucose levels and lowers the production of glucose by the liver, without increasing the concentration of insulin in the blood. This unique effect on blood insulin level is what separates Metformin from other glucose-lowering drugs of the sulfonylurea class, e.g. glyburide (Micronase; Diabeta) or glipizide (Glucotrol). How Metformin does this, is by increasing the sensitivity of muscle and fat cells to the absorption of insulin, thus improving glucose uptake from the bloodstream. Insulin metabolizes glucose, but if cells are not sensitized to insulin, both insulin and glucose will stay in the blood stream and not get transported to body cells. A prolonged condition of this nature will result in high blood glucose levels you find in Type 2 Diabetes.

Scientific studies had been conducted to prove that Metformin reduces the complications of diabetes such as heart and kidney diseases, as well as blindness. Metformin has been approved by the FDA since 1994. It’s been successful in lowering blood sugar levels without going about it excessively. If blood glucose level is overly reduced, this will lead to hypoglycemia – with common symptoms ranging from headache, mild confusion, dizziness, sweating, and abnormal behavior, to loss of consciousness, seizure, and coma.

That’s why the side effects of taking Metformin can sometimes look similar to those found in hypoglycemia. This can happen for people who somehow developed an intolerance of taking it, causing a life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. You must get emergency medical help if you find any of such symptoms of lactic acidosis: weakness, increasing sleepiness, slow heart rate, cold feeling, muscle pain, shortness of breath, stomach pain, feeling light-headed, and fainting. This condition of lactic acidosis is likely to develop if you have congestive heart failure, impaired kidney, or liver functions. In addition, older individuals are more susceptible to contracting it. People younger than 17 years old should not take slow release Metformin. In any case, no children below 10 should be given any form of it.

Other side effects might include symptoms of an allergic reaction such as throat, tongue, lip, or face swelling, breathing problems, or hives. You might also experience shortness of breath, even with the mildest of exertion, rapid weight gain, swelling, flu-like symptoms, body aches, chills, fever, headache, weakness, or even mild nausea. While taking Metformin, you might experience stomach pain, gas, diarrhea, vomiting, or muscle pain as well.

If you have a history of heart, liver of kidney disease, do not take Metformin. If you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (over production of glucose from the breakdown of your body muscle and fat tissues), call your doctor for treatment with insulin. You should always contact your doctor before commencing a treatment – get to know which of your other types of medications (whether prescription or OTC drugs, or vitamins and herbs) will raise or lower your blood glucose level, and what types will adverse interactions with Metformin.

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Treating Your Allergy Symptoms With Promethazine

Promethazine is a generic name for a class of antihistamine drugs used to prevent motion sickness, nausea, or vomiting; and for sedation, and the treatment of itching related to allergies. It is in the latter that we’re interested in here, treating allergy symptoms and reactions with Promethazine, such as: nasal congestion, itching nose, clear runny nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, hives, and itchy skin rashes. Brand names of promethazine include Phenadoz, Phenergan, and Promethegan. The FDA has approved Promethazine in 1951.

Promethazine is a prescription drug in the USA, but is available OTC in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and in many other countries. For the treatment of allergy induced symptoms and itches, tablets may be taken with or without food, once every 4 to 8 hours. Though be very careful about giving it to children, especially those below 2 years of age – Promethazine can cause severe breathing problems or even death. Doctor’s instructions must be followed carefully when given to a child of any age. Always keep this medicine out of children’s reach.

As an anti-allergic medication, Promethazine can also be used to treat hay fever, or better known as allergic rhinitis. To treat allergic reactions, it can be given either alone or in combination with an oral decongestant. All patients are recommended to have their blood pressure measured frequently. Moreover, during long-term therapy, blood cell counts, liver function studies, EKG, and EEG should be undertaken. These studies and examinations are to be taken at intervals according to risk profile of the patient.

Promethazine can produce side effects that impair your thinking or reactions. It’s required that when under medication you should not be driving or do any hazardous work which takes a great deal of concentration and alertness. Also, do not take alcohol, which serves to enhance the side effects of Prometazine.

Typical side effects of Promethazine include blurred vision, confusion, fatigue, dizziness, drowsiness, and dry mouth. Serious side effects, in which the patient should contact their physician immediately include seizures, respiratory depression (most common in children under two years of age or people with compromised function of pulmonal region), and malignant neuroleptic syndrome.

Before taking Promethazine, make sure you convey to your physician if you have or have ever experienced urination problems, digestive obstruction, stomach ulcers, glaucoma, sleep apnea, bone marrow disorder, or seizure disorder. You should also notify your physician, before taking the drug, if you have any history of heart disease, high blood pressure, or liver disease.

If you have any of the above conditions, you may not be able to take Promethazine unless your doctor requires you to take adjusted dosage, or undergo special laboratory tests during treatment. In addition, this medication is harmful to an unborn baby, so if you are pregnant or plan to get pregnant, avoid this treatment, or consult further with your doctor.

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Symptoms of a promethazine overdose may include severe drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, large pupils, flushing, nausea, vomiting, shallow breathing, and fainting.

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Treating Obesity With Phentermine

Phentermine is the generic name for an obesity management drug. Brand names include Adipex-P, Fastin, Ionamin, Obenix, Obephen, Oby-Cap, Oby-Trim, Panshape M, Phentercot, Phentride, Pro-Fast HS, Pro-Fast SA, Pro-Fast SR, Teramine, and Zantryl. Phentermine is used as both short-term and long-term medicine to treat obesity, usually accompanied by diet and behavior modification. It will suppress appetite by affecting neurotransmitters’ metabolism through changing the brain’s serotonin levels. In effect, what this achieves is to prevent the brain from receiving any hunger message by stimulating a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamine, which includes dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

Since phentermine is chemically close in structure to the amphetamines, users may become addicted to it. In many countries today, phentermine has become a controlled substance. The FDA would recommend its short-term use for a period of up to 12 weeks, in combination with healthy dieting and exercise. This is because after 12 weeks, phentermine would generally lose its appetite suppressing effects as the body gets adjusted to the drug dosage. However, there was a study whereby phentermine was used over a trial-period of 36 weeks without losing its effect. Nonetheless, it is recommended that this drug be taken either before breakfast or 1-2 hours after breakfast, due to the fact that it can cause the subject to develop insomnia. Never take phentermine in the evening, and always take it on an empty stomach once or twice a day.

Phentermine is known to be a relatively well-tolerated drug, yet it can produce side effects such as increased heart beat rate of over 100 beats per minute, and the attendant increased alertness. Though this is less pronounced compared to taking amphetamines, its long-term use may lead the subject to develop euphoria as a symptom of psychological addiction. Other symptoms include dizziness, blurred vision, or restlessness, and it may even hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. Therefore, when on this medication, do not perform hazardous activities such as driving or operating machinery. Also do not crush any phentermine tablets or chew open any capsules, swallow them whole. The patient should gradually stay off this medicine instead of stopping the program suddenly, and such timing should coincide with the gradual weight loss achieved, as advised by the doctor. This is to minimize to the utmost extent whatever withdrawal symptoms may ensue.

The patient should stop taking phentermine if they begin to experience any emergency symptoms such as symptoms of an allergic reaction which includes swelling of the lips, face, or tongue, breathing difficulties, throat closing, or hives. Furthermore, if there are any instances of high blood pressure, which generally include blurred vision or severe headaches, irregular heartbeat, confusion, hallucinations, or abnormal behavior, make sure you contact your physician immediately.

When other less serious side effects surface, continue taking phentermine, but with the doctor’s knowledge of your symptoms that might include tremors, restlessness, anxiety, nervousness, dizziness, headaches, insomnia, dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, or changes in the sex drive.

People with a history of high blood pressure, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, glaucoma, alcohol abuse, or drug abuse must avoid taking Phentermine. Additionally, if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil) in the last 14 days you cannot take the medication.

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